LC50/LD50: The concentration or dose that causes death in 50% of a group of experimental animals to which it is administered. It can be used to assess the acute toxicity of a compound but is being superseded by more refined methods.
Less than lifetime (LTL) exposure: any exposure that is not continuous daily exposure, for example, short-term, intermediate or intermittent, or a combination of these.
Leukaemia: A group of neoplastic disorders (see tumour) affecting blood-forming elements in the bone marrow, characterised by uncontrolled proliferation and disordered differentiation or maturation. Examples include the lymphocytic leukaemia’s which develop from lymphoid cells and the myeloid leukaemia’s which are derived from myeloid cells (producing red blood cells, mainly in bone marrow).
Ligand: A molecule which binds to a receptor.
Lipids: Fats, substances containing a fatty acid and soluble in alcohols or ether, but insoluble in water.
Lipophilic: 'Lipid liking' - a substance which has a tendency to partition into fatty materials.
Lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL): The lowest administered dose at which a statistically significant adverse effect, relative to that of the control, has been observed. Also given as LOEL when no ‘adverse’ effects are seen.
Lymphocyte: A type of white blood cell that plays central roles in adaptive immune responses.
Lymphoma: Malignant tumours arising from lymphoid tissues. They are usually multifocal, involving lymph nodes, spleen, thymus and sometimes bone marrow, and other sites outside the anatomically defined lymphoid system. (See also 'tumour').