Glossary of terms used in COT reports beginning with I

Last updated: 27 November 2020

Idiosyncrasy: Specific (and usually unexplained) reaction of an individual to e.g. a chemical exposure to which most other individuals do not react at all. General allergic reactions do not fall into this category.

In silico: a term used to describe a computerised analysis of the structure of a chemical to assess its potential hazard.

In situ hybridisation (ISH): Use of a DNA or RNA probe to detect the presence of the complementary DNA sequence in cloned bacterial or cultured eukaryotic cells.

In vitro: A Latin term used to describe effects in biological material outside the living animal (literally 'in glass').

In vivo: A Latin term used to describe effects in living animals (literally 'in life').

Incidence: Number of new cases of illness occurring during a given period in a specific population.

(Enzyme) Inducing agent: A chemical which, when administered to an animal, causes an increase in the expression of a particular enzyme. For example, chlorinated dibenzodioxins are inducing agents which act via the Ah-receptor (qv) to induce cytochrome P450 (qv) CYP1A1.

Intraperitoneal: Within the abdominal cavity.

Isomer: Isomers are two or more chemical compounds with the same molecular formula but having different properties owing to a different arrangement of atoms within the molecule. The ß-isomer of alitame is formed when the compound degrades and the atoms within the molecule are rearranged.